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Fruit and vegetable intake as a moderator of the association between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking
Jeffrey P. Haibach, Gregory G. Homish, R. Lorraine Collins, Christine B. Ambrosone, and Gary A. Giovino
Substance Abuse Vol. 37 , Iss. 4,2016
Cigarette smoking prevalence persists as a major clinical and public health problem, especially among persons with a depression history. In this pre-clinical and observational cohort study, we found fruit and vegetable intake to moderate the association between depression and smoking. After controlling for demographic characteristics and general health behavior orientation, there was only an association between depressive symptoms and smoking among respondents with low to moderate levels of fruit and vegetable intake cross-sectionally. When tested longitudinally, persons with elevated depressive symptoms at baseline were only less likely to quit smoking four years later at low levels of FVI. However, there was no association between depressive symptoms and smoking at higher levels of fruit and vegetable intake. We also discuss potential mechanisms of action for our results such as monoamine-oxidase inhibition, a known factor associated with smoking, fruit and vegetable intake, and depression. Future clinical research could elucidate whether or not increased fruit and vegetable intake might serve as an adjunct to smoking cessation among persons with a depression history.
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